Ecological Management of Natural Resources

PCB 5938, BSC 4933

CON 222 Friday 10:10am -  12:00pm

 Spring 2002


Please submit anything you want added to this page to Eric L. Walters


11 January Introduction. How science contributes to policy in resource management
James, Koenig
18 January How marine life histories and population dynamics influence managment strategies
25 January North American subtidal habitats and how they have changed in the recent past
Read Jackson et al. 2001 for this class (PDF linked below).
1 February Marine reserves

 Crowder et al. 2000. (in class mailbox)

Roberts et al. 2001 (PDF linked below, in class mailbox)

Halpern, B. In press. (in class mailbox)

8 February A case history of spiny lobster recruitment research: basic ecological research for management

 Butler et al. 2001 (in class mailbox)

Herrnkind et al. 1999 (in class mailbox)

Lipcius and Eggleston 2000 (in class mailbox)

Peter Bouwma's Lobster web site - please view for background

 Further background on lobster recruitment (optional reading)

15 February The status of ecological forestry

 Perry 1998 (PDF linked below, in class mailbox)

22 February The interface between experimentation and modeling in forestry

 Walters and Holling 1990 (PDF, in class mailbox)

Hansen et al. 1995 (PDF, in class mailbox)

The DEMO Study (Demonstration of Ecosystem Management Options) [click to go to website]


1 March NO TEST [5-page written paper assigned instead - due 22 March]; NO CLASS
8 March Wildlife management, modeling, and decision analysis 

Starfield 1997 (in class mailbox)


15 March Spring Break
22 March Foraging arena theory 1: Compensatory mechanisms; managing harvests in an uncertain world; harvesting strategies and tactics; 5-page assignment due
26 March Special Seminar by Dr. Walters "Tales from the foraging arena using behavioral ecology to develop ecosystem models that appear to work," CON 215 at 3:00 pm


29 March Adaptive management and parameter estimation in dynamic systems
5 April People dynamics in exploited ecosystems: temporal and spatial bioeconomics
12 April Foraging arena theory II: predicting changes in trophic interactions in disturbed ecosystems
19 April CSIT Seminar: options for modeling ecosystem spatial structure and dynamics [4th floor of Dirac Library - go to room 499] NOTE SPECIAL TIME 11:00am - 1:00pm


29 April - 3 May Trophic Modeling of Fishery Ecosystems: A Training Course Using
Ecopath with Ecosim [For more information] Dirac 499


Annotated Reading List

The issue is how to improve the way science contributes to policy. The subject will be restricted to considerations of the conservation of major exploited resources in marine and terrestrial systems. We will explore the role of model building in this area. According to Steven Sanderson the goal should be “empirical elucidation of ecological dynamics in ways that allow policies to be ‘micro-fitted’ to both human and ecological variety and variability” (p. 480 of Sanderson 2001).

References with two asterisks will be addressed in class and are available in both the Conradi mailroom and in the Conradi reading room (CON  232). These are the formal assignments for the course. References with one asterisk are available in the Conradi reading room. References without asterisks are for your general information, to help you build a bibliography of important papers on this topic. This bibliography will be updated as the course proceeds. Hyperlinks exist below when the article is available as a PDF file.

Alverson, W.S., W. Kuhlmann, and D.M. Waller. 1994. Wild forests: conservation biology and public policy. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

*Brown, L.R. 2001. Eco-economy, building an economy for the earth. W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., New York. The global economy in increasing, but many local ecosystems are collapsing. Brown proposes what he thinks an environmentally stable economy would be  like. It would have silicon cells and wind power for electricity, hydrogen fuel cells to drive engines, and high taxes on environmentally destructive practices. [On reserve in Dirac]

Burnham, K.P. and D.R. Anderson. 1998. Model selection and inference - a practical information theoretic approach. Springer-Verlag, Inc., New York. [On reserve in Dirac]

Burton, R.S., P.D. Rawson and S. Edmands. 1999. Genetic architecture of physiological phenotypes: empirical evidence for coadapted gene complexes. Amer. Zool. 39:451-462.

**Butler, M.J., IV, T. Dolan, W. Herrnkind, and J. Hunt. 2001. Modelling the effect of spatial variation in postlarval supply and habitat structure on recruitment of Caribbean spiny lobster. Mar. Freshwater Res. 52: in press.

 Butler, M. J., IV, and W.F. Herrnkind. 1997. A test of recruitment limitation and the potential for artificial enhancement of spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) populations in Florida. Can. J. Fish. Aqua. Sci. 54:452-463.

 Butler, M. J., IV, W.F. Herrnkind and J.H. Hunt. 1997. Factors affecting the recruitment of juvenile Caribbean spiny lobsters dwelling in macroalgae. Bull. Mar. Sci. 61:3-19.

Childress, M. J. and W.F. Herrnkind. 1994. The behavior of juvenile Caribbean spiny lobster in Florida Bay: seasonality, ontogeny and sociality. Bull. Mar. Sci. 54:819-827.

Childress, M. J. and W.F. Herrnkind. 1996. The ontogeny of social behaviour among juvenile Caribbean spiny lobsters. Anim. Behav. 51:675-687.

Childress, M. J. and W.F. Herrnkind. 1997. Den sharing by juvenile Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus) in nursery habitat: cooperation or coincidence? Mar. Fresh. Res. 48:751-758.

Childress, M. J. and W.F. Herrnkind. In press. The guide-effect influence on the gregariousness of juvenile Caribbean spiny lobsters. Anim. Behav. 61.

**Crowder, L. B., S. J. Lyman, W. F. Figueira, and J. Priddy. 2000. Source-sink population dynamics and the problem of siting marine reserves. Bulletin of Marine Science 66(3)799-820.

 DeAngelis, D.L. and L.J. Gross (eds). 1992. Individual-based models and approaches in ecology: populations, communities, and ecosystems. Chapman and Hall, New York.

 Eggleston, D. B. and R.N. Lipcius. 1992. Shelter selection by spiny lobster under variable predation risk, social conditions and shelter size. Ecology. 73:992-1011.

Ellison, A.M. 1996. An introduction to Bayesian inference for ecological research and environmental decision-making. Ecological Applications 6(4):1036-1046.

Forcucci, D., M.J. Butler, IV, and J.H. Hunt. 1994. Growth and population dynamics of juvenile Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, in Florida Bay, FL (USA). Bull. Mar. Sci. 54:805-818.

Friedman, T.L. 2000. The Lexus and the olive tree. Random House, Inc., New York. Globalization, free-market capitalism, and the information revolution are now driving national and international politics and commerce. Opponents like labor unions and environmentalists don’t have a sustainable economic alternative. They are getting left behind. [On reserve in Dirac]

Gaines, S.D. and K.K. Lafferty. 1995. Modeling the dynamics of marine species: the importance of larval dispersal. Pages 389-412, in Ecology of Marine Invertebrate Larvae (L. McEdward ed.). CRC Press, Boca Raton.

**Halpern, B. In press. The impact of marine reserves: do reserves work and does reserve size matter? Ecological Applications.

Hansen, A.J., S.L. Garman, J.F. Weigand, D.L. Urban, W.C. McComb and M.G. Raphael. 1995. Alternative silvicultural regimes in the Pacific Northwest simulations of ecological and economic effects. Ecological Applications 5:535-554.

Havenhand, J.N. 1995. Evolutionary ecology of larval types. Pages 79-122, in Ecology of Marine Invertebrate Larvae (L. McEdward ed.). CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Hellberg, M.E. 1996. Dependence of gene flow on geographic distance in two solitary corals with different larval dispersal capabilities. Evolution 50:1167-1175.

Herrnkind, W. F. (1980). Spiny lobsters: patterns of movement. In: The Biology and Management of Lobsters, Volume I (Ed. by J. S. Cobb & B. F. Phillips), pp. 349-407. New York: Academic Press.

Herrnkind, W. F. and M.J. Butler, IV. 1986. Factors regulating postlarval settlement and juvenile microhabitat use by spiny lobster Panulirus argus. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 34:23-30.

Herrnkind, W. F. and Butler. M. J., IV. (1994). Settlement of spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804), in Florida: pattern without predictability? Crustaceana 67:48-64.

**Herrnkind, W.F., M.J. Butler IV, and J.H. Hunt. 1999. A case for shelter replacement in a disturbed spiny lobster nursery in Florida: why basic research had to come first. American Fisheries Society Symposium 22:421-437.

Herrnkind, W. F., Butler, M. J., IV, Hunt, J. H. and Childress, M. J. (1997). Role of physical refugia: implication from a mass sponge die-off in a lobster nursery in Florida. Mar. Fresh. Res. 48:759-769.

Herrnkind, W. F., Jernakoff, P. and Butler, M. J., IV. (1994). Puerulus and post-puerulus ecology. In: Spiny Lobster Management (Ed. by B. F. Phillips, J. S. Cobb & J. Kittaka), pp. 213-227. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publishers.

Herrnkind, W. F., Van DerWalker, J. and Barr, L. (1975). Population dynamics, ecology and behavior of spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, of St. John, USVI:(IV) Habitation, patterns of movement and general behavior. Sci. Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. L. A. County 20:31-45.

Hilborn, R. and C.J. Walters. 1992. Quantitative fisheries stock assessment. Chapman and Hall, New York.

Jackson, J.B.C., L.W. Buss, and R.E. Cook. 1985. Population biology and evolution of clonal organisms. Yale University Press, New Haven.

**Jackson et al. 2001.  Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems.  Science 293:629-638.

Johnson, D.H. 1999. The insignificance of statistical significance testing. Journal of Wildlife Management 63:763-772.

 Kanciruk, P. 1980. Ecology of juvenile and adult Palinuridae (spiny lobsters). In: The Biology and Management of Lobsters, Volume II (Ed. by J. S. Cobb & B. F. Phillips), pp. 59-96. New York: Academic Press.

Kohm, K.A. and J.F. Franklin (eds) 1997. Creating a forestry for the 21st century, the science of ecosystem management. Island Press, Washington, D.C.; international meeting in Portland, Oregon in August 1993. [On reserve in Dirac]

Levitan, D.R. 1998. Sperm limitation, gamete competition, and sexual selection in external fertilizers. Pages 175-215 in Sperm Competition and Sexual Selection (T.R. Birkhead and A.P. Moller eds.), Academic Press, San Diego.

Levitan, D.R. and T.M. McGovern. 2002. The Allee effect in the Sea. In (E.A. Norse and L.B. Crowder eds) Marine Conservation Biology: The Science of Maintaining the Sea's Biodiversity. Island Press (in press).

Lindley, D.V. 1985. Making decisions. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

**Lipcius, R. & D. Eggleston. 2000. Ecology and fishery biology of spiny lobsters. Pp. 1-41, In: Phillips, B.& J. Kittaka (eds.), Spiny lobster management: fisheries and aquaculture. Fishing News Books, Oxford, UK.

 *Lomborg, B. 2001. The skeptical environmentalist, measuring the real state of the world. Cambridge University Press, New York. This statistician and political scientist says the Litany of environmental prophets is based on exaggerations, biassed use of time series data, repetitions by the crisis-focused media, and environmental groups that need to sustain themselves. The material conditions of life are improving. The author prefers the WTO outlook to the IPPC framework.

Lubchenco, J., A.M. Olson, L.B. Brubaker, S.R. Carpenter, M.M. Holland, et al. 1991. The sustainable biosphere initiative: an ecological research agenda. Ecology 72:371-412. This paper is a policy statement from the Ecological Society of America. It recommends topics for future research. It also recommends new interactions between ecologists and decision-makers, the media, and educators.

Ludwig, D. 2001. Can we exploit sustainably? Pp 16-38 in Reynolds et al. (see below)

** Ludwig, D., M. Mangel, and B. Haddad. 2001. Ecology, conservation, and public policy. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 32:481-517.

Mangel, M., L.M. Talbot, G.K. Meffe, M. Agardy, D.L. Alverson et al. 1996. Principles for the conservation of wild living resources. Ecol. Appl. 6:338-62. Also treats mechanisms for implementation, economic and social aspects.

Marx, J. M. and W.F. Herrnkind. 1985. Macroalgae (Rhodophtya: Laurencia spp.) as habitat for young juvenile spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus. Bull. Mar. Sci. 36(3):423-431.

Mintz, J. D., R.N. Lipcius, D. B. Eggleston, and M.S. Seebo. 1994. Survival of juvenile Caribbean spiny lobster: effects of shelter size, geographic location and conspecific abundance. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 112:255-266.

Mladenoff, D.J. and W.L. Baker. 1999. Development of forest modeling approaches. In: Mladenoff, D.J. and W.L. Baker (eds). Advances in spatial modeling of forest landscape change: approaches and applications. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK.

Moulton, M.P. and J. Sanderson. 1997. Wildlife issues in a changing world. St. Lucie Press. Delray Beach, Florida. Reviews the history of wildlife issues and describes current conservation issues; advocates testing null hypotheses. [On reserve in Dirac]

Palumbi, S.R. 1995. Using genetics as an indirect indicator of larval dispersal. Pages 369-387, in Ecology of Marine Invertebrate Larvae (L. McEdward ed.). CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Perry, D.A. 1998. The scientific basis of forestry. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29:435-466.

Petersen, C.W. and D.R. Levitan. 2001. The Allee effect: a barrier to recovery by exploited species. Pp 281-300 in Reynolds et al. (see below).

Ralls, K. and A.M. Starfield. 1995. Choosing a management strategy: two structured decision-making methods for evaluating the predictions of stochastic simulation models. Conservation Biology 9:175-181.

 Ratchford, S. G. and D.B. Eggleston. 1998. Size and scale-dependent chemical attraction contribute to an ontogenetic shift in sociality. Anim. Behav. 56:1027-1034.

*Reynolds, J.D., G.M. Mace, K.H. Redford and J.G. Robinson (editors). 2001. Conservation of exploited species. Cambridge University Press, New York. Habitat loss is the main reason for the imperilment of biodiversity, but exploitation (overharvest) is also a major contributor. This edited book contains excellent chapters giving case histories. Results of a 1999 conference in London; sustainability is foiled by inabilities to predict outcomes and inabilities to implement recommendations.

 **Roberts, C. M. J. A. Bohnsack, F. Gell, J. P. Hawkins, R. Goodridge. 2001. Effects of marine reserves on adjacent fisheries. Science. 294:1920-1923.

 Robinson, J.G. 1993. The limits to caring: sustainable living and the loss of biodiversity. Conserv. Biol. 7:20-28. Review of the history of the concept of sustainable development; claims that there is a fundamental contradiction between resource potential and human needs so we also need to have a preservationist approach.

Roughgarden, J., S.D. Gaines, and H. Possingham. 1988. Recruitment dynamics in complex life cycles. Science 241:1460-1466.

Sanderson, S. 2001. Getting the biology right in a political sort of way. Pp 462-482 in Reynolds et al. (see above).

Sharp, W. C., Lellis, W. A., Butler, M. J., Herrnkind, W. F.,  Hunt, J. H., Pardee-Woodring, M. and Matthews, T. R. 2000. The use of coded microwire tags in mark-recapture studies of juvenile Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus.  J. Crust. Biol. 20:510-521.

Shenk, T.M. and A.B. Franklin. 2001. Modeling in natural resource management development, interpretation, and application. Island Press, Washington, DC. From the 1997 Wildlife Society Symposium, Biometrics Working Group. [On reserve in Dirac]

Smith, K. N. and W. F. Herrnkind. 1992. Predation on early juvenile spiny lobsters Panulirus argus (Latreille): influence of size and shelter. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 157:3-18.

Species Survival Commission, 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: World Conservation Union-IUCN, 2000) States that 1/8 of world’s 9946 bird species, 1/4 of 4763 mammal species and nearly 1/3 of the 25,000 fish species are in danger of extinction.

Starfield, A.M. 1997. A pragmatic approach to modeling for wildlife management. J. of Wildlife Management 61:261-270. Starfield advocates the development of small models directed toward very specific problems. Some common misconceptions about models are reviewed.

Steadman, D.W. 1995. Prehistoric extinctions of Pacific Island birds: biodiversity meets zooarchaeology. Science 267:1123-1131.

**Stoner, A.W.  and M. Ray-Culp, 2000.  Evidence for Allee effects in an over-harvested marine gastropod: density-dependent mating and egg production.  Marine Ecology Progress Series 202:297-302.

Strathmann, R.R. 1990. Why life histories evolve differently in the sea. American Zoologist 30:197-207.

**Tegner, M.J., L.V. Basch and P.K. Dayton 1996.  Near extinction of an exploited marine invertebrate.  Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11:278-280.

 Tuljapurkar, S. and H. Caswell. 1997. Structured-population models in marine, terrestrial, and freshwater systems. Chapman and Hall, New York.

Walters, C. 1986. Adaptive management of renewable resources. McMillan, New York.

Walters, C. 1997. Challenges in adaptive management of riparian and coastal ecosystems. Conservation Ecology (online) 1(2):1. Adaptive management is a structured process for learning by doing. The article describes the failures of many past models to resolve uncertainties or to be useful for making policy comparisons. There have been problems with cross-scale effects, lack of data on key processes, and problems with validation. These have been barriers to the implementation of adaptive management.

Walters, C.J. and C.S. Holling. 1990. Large-scale management experiments and learning by doing. Ecology 71:2060-2068.

Other Material

Interview that appeared on National Public Radio's Talk of the Nation on 14 January 2002: E.O. Wilson discusses his new book, "The Future of Life", and debates the current biodiversity crisis with Bjorn Lomborg, author of "The Skeptical Environmentalist". [You will need Real Audio to listen to this]

Last updated: 05 April 2002 14:46:22