The Effects of Water's Polarity

I. Characteristics of Water A. Life on Earth! B. 85-95% of most organisms C. Exists in three states D. Polarity facilitates H-bonds (4 molecules) E. 4 Major Properties 1. cohesiveness 2. temperature stabilization 3. expands upon freezing 4. versatility as a solvent II. Cohesive Behavior A. 15% of water interacts in an H-bond B. minisus - surface tension C. adhesion - xylem water transport in plants III. Temperature Stabilization A. Kinetic Energy B. Heat versus Temperature C. Kinetic Gradients D. Units 1. The Celsius Scale 2. The Kilocalorie 3. Specific Heat E. Evaporative Cooling 1. Heat of Vaporization 2. Evaporative Cooling IV. Expansion Upon Cooling A. The three states of water B. Why this property exists 1. molecularly 2. biological benefits V. Water as a Solvent A. Definitions 1. solution 2. solvent 3. solutes 4. aqueous solution 5. hydrophilic 6. hydrophobic B. Calculation of Solute Concentrations 1. Avogadro's Number 2. Molarity VI. Water Molecules Provide pH A. Dissociation of Water into 1. hydronium ion (hydrogen + H20) 2. hydroxide ion 3. reversible reaction B. pH = -log [H+] C. [H+] X [OH] = 10-14 D. The pH scale a. acids (weak and strong) b. bases (weak and strong) c. neutral d. buffers 1. example carbonic acid shift equation 2. Law of Mass Action E. Acid Precipitation in the Environment