Translation: The Synthesis of Protein from mRNA

I. Multiple Types of RNA are needed to build a protein A. Types a. mRNA (messenger RNA) b. tRNA (transfer RNA) c. rRNA (ribosomal RNA) d. pre mRNA (primary transcript RNA) e. snRNA (small nuclear RNA) f. SRP RNA (signal recognition particle RNA) B. Structure of the tRNA a. Molecular shape and function 1. anticodon 2. aa attachment site b. aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase + ATP to activate the tRNA c. wobble of codon triplet II. Steps of Translation A. Initiation - The Translation Initiation Complex 1. Initiation Factor (IF) 2. Small and large ribosomal units 3. GTP expenditure 4. mRNA 5' cap region recognition B. Elongation 1. Codon Recognition a. Use of three sites (E, P, and A) in the large ribosomal subunit b. Initiation tRNA to the P site = MET c. Incoming amino acid linked to tRNA to the A site 2. Peptide Bond Formation a. Catalyzed by the large ribosomal subunit b. Transfer of elongating peptide from P site to A site for bond formation 3. Translocation a. H bonds are retained and GTP powers the elongating chain and the empty tRNA to move back into position by sliding to sites P and E respectively. b. Elongating chain remains at P site, empty tRNA exits the E site, and A site is now available to bind new, incoming tRNA. C. Termination 1. Release Factor induces hydrolysis instead of peptide bond formation 2. Peptide is freed from the P site. III. Additional Events of Protein Function A. Chaperone Proteins B. Polyribosomes