Subcellular Structures of the Cell

I. Cytology A. Resolving Power of Microscopy 1. The Light Microscope (0.2 microns) 2. The Electron Microscope (EM) (0.1 nanometers) a. scanning EM (SEM) - surface of a specimen b. transmission EM (TEM) - internal ultrastructure 3. Combining Microanatomy with Cell Fractionation II. Major Organelles of the Eukaryotic Cell A. Animals versus Plants B. KNOW ALL ORGANELLES DEMONSTRATED IN FIGURES 7.7-7.8. III. Details on Four Organelles A. Nucleus and Ribosomes 1. DNA in nucleus and mitochondria 2. Nuclear membrane 3. Chromatin 4. Nucleolus 5. mRNA and rRNA 6. Types of Ribosomes a. free ribosomes b. bound ribosomes B. Smooth versus Rough ER 1. Functions of Smooth ER a. synthesis of lipids b. dephosphorylation of glucose to permit exit c. detoxification of drugs 2. Functions of Rough ER a. production of secretory proteins b. post-translational modifications c. products are sent to the golgi apparatus 1. trans golgi 2. cis golgi C. Mitochondria and Chloroplasts 1. Similar pentultimate function 2. Semiautonomous organelles 3. Specialized structural features a. mitochondria 1. IMM and OMM 2. cristae b. plastids 1. amyloplasts 2. chromoplasts 3. chloroplasts a. thylakoids stacked as granum b. stroma fluid compartment D. The Plasma Membrane - The Fluid Mosaic Model 1. The historical perspective as seen by... a. Charles Overton b. Irving Langmuir c. Gorter and Grendel d. Davson and Danielli e. Singer and Nicolson 2. Major Properties of the Fluid Mosaic Membrane a. Selective Permeability b. Fluidity 1. role of H-C double bonding 2. cholesterol c. Mosaic (of proteins) d. Sideness due to Carbohydrates and interactions on the external face 3. Important Functions of the PM a. Transport b. Enzymatic activity c. Signal Transduction d. Intercellular Joining e. Cell-cell recognition f. attachment to cytoskeletal and matrix