Membrane Physiology

I. The Phospholipid Bilayer - Fluid Mosaic Model A. Importance of the Membrane for the Physiologist B. Major Components and Examples 1. Cholesterol 2. Fatty Acyl C Chains/Polar Head Groups 3. Integral and Extrinsic Proteins 4. Glycoproteins 5. Protein Scaffolds 6. Cytoskeletal II. Transport of Molecules ACROSS the Membrane A. Endocytosis 1. Phagocytosis 2. Pinocytosis 3. Protein Uptake B. Exocytosis C. Fusion of Vessicles/Organelles III. Transport of Molecules THROUGH Membranes A. Simple Diffusion 1. Brownian Movement-Random Walk Theory 2. Fick's First Law of Diffusion B. Osmosis 1. Hydrostatic Pressure vs. Osmotic Pressure 2. Isotonic vs. Isoosmotic a. hypoosmotic b. hyperosmotic c. the rbc as an osmometer C. Protein-Mediated Transport 1. Characteristics of All Protein-mediated Processes a. Rate b. Saturation Kinetics c. Stereospecificity d. Competition 2. Facilitated Diffusion a. general principles b. examples 1. glucose uptake 2. ion channels a. voltage-gated b. ion-gated c. ligand-gated 3. Secondary Active Transport a. general principles b. example 1. coupled transport 4. Primary Active Transport a. general principles b. example 1. Na/K ATPase pump 5. Tranporters 1. Synport 2. Antiport IV. The Activity of Nerve Membranes A. Historical Perspectives B. "Typical" Nerve Cell and Its Specializations 1. Integration 2. Axon Hillock 3. Impulse Conduction 4. Transmitter Release Zone 5. Neuron Anatomical Classes a. pseudounipolar b. bipolar c. multipolar 6. Common Properties and Common Role of Na/K ATPase pump C. Establishment of the Negative Resting Potential (Em) 1. Comparison of cell-types with Em 2. Code or Language of the Nervous System a. spiking/action potential b. frequency c. duration d. oscillations e. repetitive use 3. Concept of Chemical and Electrical Equilibrium that Underlies the Nernst Potential 4. Permeability Changes and Ion Channel Gating D. The Action Potential 1. Resting State 2. Latency 3. Depolarization 4. Repolarization 5. Hyperpolarization 6. Threshold 7. Absolute and Relative Refractory Periods E. Ion Channel Proteins "We do not understand how we think, but we do know that electrical signals passed around by the thinking brain are generated by a single class of protein: THE ION CHANNELS" Chris Miller, Brandeis University 1. Structure/Function 2. Classes of Ion Channels 3. Substructure of Ion Channels 4. How do we measure signals from ion channels? 5. Why does ANYONE Clinically Care about Ion Channels?! a. Disease - i.e. Cystic Fibrosis b. Cardiac Channel Blockers c. Targets for Poisons d. Targets for anesthetics e. Learning and Memory f. Drug Development