Carbon: Importance for Life and Functional Groups

I. What is Organic Chemistry? A. Jons Jakob Berzelius and Vitalism B. Frederich Wohler and Mechanism C. Stanley Miller and the Origin of Life D. = the study of carbon compounds II. Carbon as a Versatile Atom A. Little tendancy for ionic bonds B. Tetravalence C. Shape of the C containing compound 1. tetrahedral 2. double tetrahedral 3. C in double bonds D. Carbon dioxide as the sole source E. Types of carbon skeletons 1. length differences 2. branching differences 3. double bond placement 4. ring differences F. Hydrocarbons 1. fossil fuels 2. fats G. Isomers 1. structural isomers 2. geometric isomers 3. enantiomers a. l and d isomers III. Organic Chemistry Functional Groups A. Functional group definition B. all are hydrophillic C. "R" portion of a molecule D. 6 Functional Groups (KNOW all of Table 4.1) 1. Hydroxyl group 2. Carbonyl group 3. Carboxyl group 4. Amino group 5. Sulhydryl group 6. Phosphate group

Macromolecules I

I. Four Classes of Macromolecules A. Proteins B. Carbohydrates C. Lipids D. Nucleic Acids II. Carbohydrates A. Monosaccharides 1. Carbonyl as the functional group 2. 2 classes a. aldose b. ketose 3. hexoses, pentoses, trioses 4. linear carbon skeletons versus rings B. Disaccharides 1. 1,4 linkages through dehydration reaction 2. 3 common disaccharides a. maltose b. lactose c. sucrose C. Polysaccharides 1. Classification 2. 2 Main types a. storage polysaccharides 1. starch a. alpha versus beta glucose b. amylose c. amylopectin 2. glycogen b. structural polysaccharides 1. cellulose 2. chitin III. Lipids A. Fats 1. triglyceride structure via ester linkages 2. Head/Tail 3. saturated versus unsaturated B. Phospholipids 1. third hydroxyl in glycerol replaced by phosphate 2. Head/Tail a. micelles b. bilayers C. Steroids IV. Proteins A. The Amino Acids (AA) 1. amine and carboxyl groups 2. N and C terminus 3. protein versus polypeptide 4. Types of side chains a. polar b. acidid c. basic d. nonpolar 5. peptide bonds via dehydration reactions B. Primary Structure 1. AA sequence C. Secondary Structure 1. alpha helix 2. beta pleated sheet 3. random coils D. Tertiary Structure 1. H-bonds 2. hydrophobic interactions 3. disulfide bridges E. Quaternary Structure 1. Examples 2. Protein Folding a. denaturation b. targeting c. chaperone proteins V. Nucleic Acids A. 2 classes of nucleic acids 1. DNA 2. RNA B. Flow of genetic information C. The Nucleotide (3 parts) 1. nitrogenous base a. purines 1. A and G b. pyrimidines 1. C, T, and U 2. ribose 3. phosphate group D. The double helix 1. sugar-P backbond 2. internal nitrogenous base (ladder) 3. complementary 4. double stranded via h-bonds