I. Gas Exchange in the Animal Kingdom A. Definition of Exchange B. Respiration vs. Cellular Respiration C. Characteristics of all Respiratory Systems 1. Respiratory Medium 2. Respiratory Surface a. simple diffusion b. thin and great s.a. c. matched with metabolic demand d. moisture, folding, branching D. Most Common Organs 1. gills - inverts, fish 2. tracheae - insects 3. lungs - spiders, land snails, all vertebrates II. Gills A. Examples you should know 1. sea star 2. marine polychaete 3. clams 4. crustaceans 5. fish a. countercurrent exchange III. Tracheal System A. Water vs. Air physical properties B. Tracheoles and Spiracles C. Use of flight muscles to move air IV. Lungs A. Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide B. Examples you should know 1. frog 2. Turtle 3. Mammals 4. Birds a. air sacs b. parabronchi c. unidirectional C. Details of the Mammalian System 1. Olfactory Epithelium to the Aveoli 2. Pulmonary Circulation 3. Boyle's Law and Recruitment of Muscles a. Inhalation b. Exhalation 4. Use of Spirometry a. Tidal Volume b. Vital Capacity c. Residual Volume