Urinary System

I. Introductory A. Basic Renal Functions B. The Nephron - the functional unit 1. Two classes of nephrons 2. The 3D Nephron a. glomerulus b. pct c. loh = asc & des d. dct e. JGA 3. Major Processes a. glomerular filtration b. tubular reabsorption c. tubular secretion II. Key Principles Operating in Regions.... A. Glomerulus a. ultrafiltrate via pores b. clearance based upon size & charge c. GFR d. autoregulation e. no active transport B. pct a. transepithelial transport b. glucose secondary active transport c. Na/K ATPase pump (active transport) d. concept of Tm e. passive - urea, Cl, organics, H20 C. loh a. countercurrent multiplication D. dct a. vasopressin and aldosterone hormonal regulation b. K ion secretion E. JGA a. vasoactive secretions to afferent arteriole (glomerulus) b. renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system III. Clinical Aspects of Renal Failure/Disease A. Albuminuria / Proteinuria B. Hypertension C. Congestive Heart Failure D. Diabetes mellitus E. Consequences of Renal Failure F. Artificial Kidney