The following informal questions will guide
efforts towards the key conceptional ideas we
have covered and
will strenghen your
knowledge for the upcoming exam.
For all exams:
You should know specific vocabulary words and conventions we
have defined and not be afraid to use them!
YOU WILL BE REQUIRED TO PROVIDE DETAILED
AS WELL AS TO APPLY PRACTICAL LOGIC FROM
MAKE SURE YOU PREPARE YOURSELF FOR MULTIPLE
FORMATS AND STUDY YOUR MATERIAL KNOWING THAT
BE t/f, FILL IN THE BLANKS, SHORT ANSWER, AS
MULTIPLE CHOICE. I WANT TO TEST YOU FOR YOUR KNOWLEDGE,
NOT YOUR ABILITY TO EXAMINE, THEREFORE THE
DIVERSE AND UNBIASED.
First Exam Study Questions:
Omit the red questions for
What is the major organizational plan of the body? And what
are the four primary tissues?
between the 3 types of muscle (skeletal, cardiac, and smooth)?
What is the substructure of the neuron (functional unit of the nervous
Anatomical classifications of epithelial tissue and 2 primary functions?
Four types of connective tissue?
Distinguish between ICF, ECF, plasma, and interstitial fluid?
Organelle structure and function?
is the structure of the phospholipid bilayer important to physiological
Identity and functions of specialized proteins in the latticework?
Review of GENERAL principles of glycolysis, TCA, electron transport
Cellular activities that require energy expenditure?
How does the Chemiosmotic Hypothesis demonstrate several classic
How are organic molecules classified?
What is the structure of proteins?
What is the major function of nucleic acids?
Review the genetic code, transcription, and translation?
Sources of hazardous mutagens?
How are molecules transported across and through the membrane?
Which types of membrane transport requires energy? requires proteins?
requires a gradient? Name physiological mechanisms where transport
How does Einstein's Random Walk Theory relate to synaptic transmission?
How do concentration gradients, size of NT, charge, and temperature
affect the rate of electronic signaling?
Why are rbcs natural osmometers?
23. What are distinct characteristics of only
24. What does primary active transport have to do
25. What are the generic regions of
specialization for a "typical" nerve cell
are the anatomically distinct neuron types located in the body?
26. What physiological processes are in common
for all neuron types?
27. Do all cells that have a negative resting
potential have the
fire an action potential? Why or why
28. In what form is information encoded in the
nervous system? How does
action potential shape change the information?
If you were to block
ionic conductances underlying the action potential
with drugs, how
various scenarios alter the encoded information?
29. What is absolute and relative refraction;
what type of ion channel blockers
targets) would affect rates of action potential firing?
30. Why do we clinically want to measure ion
What are some common antidepressant drugs, diet pills, and medicines for
hallucinations? Where do these medicines
transmission? Which drug is presently being recalled due to
its side effects
on heart valve damage?
32. What are the classic principles of the action
33. How are local currents distinct from action
potentials? If the former are
what is their physiological function?
34. Does the ALL-or-NONE principle contradict the
theory of recruitment?
35. Do all nerve cells have the same threshold
and space constant? Why or why not?
36. What is a myelinated axon? How does saltatory conduction velocity assist
system in terms of energy, space, and speed?
37. What is the physiological basis for Multiple
Sclerosis? What other environmental
could induce similar patient symptoms?
38. Do Schwann cells or Oligodendrocytes assist
in regeneration? Discuss?
39. Compare and contrast electrical synapses with
the traditional chemical synapse.
40. Why do scientists know so much about the NMJ
and the ACh-R over that of all other
41. How do microtubules assist in synaptic
42. If you had a drug that blocked
taking this "prescription" affect the excitability of your muscle?
43. What are the properties of neuroglia?
44. What are the four classes of neuroglia?
is important during a stroke (and why?),
is protective again brain damage?
assists to increase the conduction velocity of nerve impulses?
assists in immune responses?
45. Know the structure/functions of the major
common diseases are associated with which brain regions.
46. What are some common clinical causes of brain
47. What are the physiological mechanisms
accident and what are some new
to prevent further neuronal cell death?
48. What are some modern technical devices used
brain tumors and what are
principles of operation?
49. What is plasticity and how is it related to
competition for cortical space?
50. What are some selective language disturbances
due to stroke or genetic defects?
51. How does the homunculus cartoon graphically
our perceived input and responsive motor output?
How does it
demonstrate the somatotopic map?
52. What cell type does Parkinson's disease
with clinical symptoms, cellular causes and
putative causes of this disease, and
well as controversial treatments of the disease.
How is this disease
related to Schizophrenia?
53. What cell type does Alzheimer's disease
with clinical symptoms, cellular causes and
mechanisms. How is this disease associated with a metal?
54. More Computational Practice Problems –
following information, [Nao] = 300 mM, [Nai] = 35 mM,
[Ko] = 47
mM, [Ki] = 410 mM, [Clo] = 60 mM, [Cli] = 150 mM, PNa (active) =
pNa (rest) = 0.5, pK = 10, pCl = 8.
A. What is the equilibrium potential for
B. What is the height of the action potential?
C. What is the resting potential of the nerve if
it is an octopus?
D. Knowing B and C, will the nerve fire is there
is a disturbance the moves the potential to +30 mV?
E. If the nerve felt an electrical disturbance
of 300 pA at point 0, how much
would be remaining 100 um away if the length constant
was 50 um?
A = +24 mV,
B = 56 mV, C = -23 mV, D = yes b/c the threshold is -11 mV, E = 41 pA
55. What is the reticular formation? How does it relate
alertness? How can we measure alertness
electrical signal? What are the levels
What is an
56. Describe why sleep is an active process. Distinguish
and paradoxical sleep (delta and beta
57. Know the composition of the PNS and the 12
cranial nerves that originate
brain stem. What is the map of
associated functions with the white
the grey matter of the spinal cord? What
are the components
1. How are muscles the contractile specialists
of the body?
2. How are muscles categorized structurally and
in terms of function?
3. Know the anatomy of skeletal muscle from
down to the protein.
4. Know the substructure of the sarcomere basic
what changes occur during skeletal muscle contraction.
5. Describe fully and distinguish between the
Theory and Excitation-Contraction Coupling.
6. How is the structure of the
their physiological function?
structure/function across actin and myosin.
7. How is the role of Ca2+ different in skeletal,
and smooth muscle?
8. Describe the steps of the cross-bridge cycle
for skeletal muscle?
How is it
critically different in smooth muscle?
excitation-contraction coupling different
smooth, and cardiac muscle?
9. Study fully the physiology of smooth muscle
structure and function to that of cardiac and skeletal muscle.
10. Describe the components of whole muscle
contraction, relaxation) and the cellular events
theses mechanics. What is a twitch,
11. Describe the motor unit, what is motor unit
How does the
motor unit and its recruitment change as we age?
12. What are three cellular sources of
What is recovery
in physiological terms?
muscle atrophy? What are some common
and how can
we minimize atrophy?
13. Describe the clinical pathology of Muscular
and genetic basis for the disease, and two newly
types of therapy for treatment of the muscle atrophy.
14. What are intermediate filaments? How do they relate to
bodies? How does smooth muscle contract
sarcomere units and troponin?
15. Why can certain drugs and hormones modulate
smooth and cardiac muscles but are left ineffective
modulation of skeletal muscle contraction?
16. How can smooth muscle utilize more ATP per
cycle than that of skeletal, and still be
economical in terms of energy expenditure?
What is the
latch phenomena (see text for greater
17. Describe and contrast the two types of smooth
parts of the body in which we would find them
functioning. Which utilizes a functional syncytium in
with gap junction proteins?
18. For myogenic single unit smooth muscle, what
are the two
spontaneous depolarizations found in these two self-excitable
cells? What kind of electrical activity would you
expect to find
duodenum? your gall bladder? your heart?
lungs? your hamstring?
19. Know the blood flow patterns of the heart and
vessels leading into and out of the heart.
the 4 valves
of the heart and which are open during ventricular
and which are open during ventricular contraction?
What is the
purpose of the valves and what is the anatomy
20. How is the heart 2 pumps in series divided by
major circulatory systems are involved?
defects can cause abnormal blood shunting....
blood normally shunted to relieve pressure during
development? And what clinical situation
physiological events do not occur properly at and
21. What two major nerves alter the myogenicity of the
muscle? How? Know the electrical conduction
the heart from origination of these two nerves
the Pûrkinje fibers.
22. Distinguish between the action potentials in
those found in the myocardia. Why is the
and to what advantage is this? How do
regions within the heart? What electrical
does this supply?
23. Be able to go back and forth between the
heart, the four heart sounds, the EKG, and the blood
the heart to compare the time synchrony across these
24. Know which heart sounds correspond to the
opening or closing
heart valves. Where is the best
resolution of the sound
on the human
body for each valve? What is a heart
murmur and what
classic causes of a heart murmur?
25. Know what the electrical basis is for the EKG
and all the underlying
components are for each wave or spectrum.
How is the shape,
and timing of the EKG used to diagnose heart disease states?
Be able to
distinguish the following arrhythmias: bradycardia,
pacemaker, ventricular tachycardia, flutter, atrial fibrillation,
26. Define A-V heart block in terms of the EKG
P-R interval? What are the
changes that occur as the patient moves from 1st to 3rd degree
block? What does the EKG look like
during a MI (Myocardial Infarction)?
27. Be able to distinguish between the structural
and hence functional
between the 3 major blood vessels in the body.
How does the
coordinate with these vessels?
28. Understand the terminology used in heart
artheriosclerosis, ischemia, thrombosis, plaque, and embolism.
29. What is the cellular mechanism for the development
of plaque that commences
at the age
of 16-18 years of age? How are
low-density and high density lipo-
involved? How is the incidence of CHD
related to your levels
30. How are exercise, menopause, pregnancy,
lactation, smoking, genetic defects,
related to your levels of LDL and/or HDL?
31. An occlusion of your coronary vessel is known
as what? Where is the most
location for an occlusion in your heart?
Why? An occlusion in any
your brain is known as what? What are 5
common treatments we discussed
to alleviate the oxygen deprivation caused by the occlusion?
32. Distinguish between a myocardial infarction
and myocardial ischemia? What
are some differences
and similarities in their clinical symptoms?
physiological target of nitroglycerine and by what type of molecule?
33. What is the definition of cardiac
output? How does it relate to the rate
of parasympathetic and sympathetic
discharge? to stroke volume? to mean
arterial pressure? to EDV?
34. There are many mechanisms to regulate blood
volume and blood pressure. We
only the classic stretch receptors located in the "resistance
with this reflex pathway and how it can bring both high and
pressure back to homeostatic conditions.
35. Describe some physical laws governing blood
flow. Specifically what roles
length of the vessel, the viscosity of the blood, the radius of the vessel,
total cross-sectional area of a class of vessels play in affecting
to blood flow? How would these then
affect cardiac output?
36. Be familiar with clinical implications for
non-laminar blood flow such as
cardiac murmurs, anemic conditions, and hypertension. Understand
physiological basis for the ausculatory method you use during routine blood
37. Be able to calculate and recognize the
clinical implications for blood
pressure, peripheral resistance, cardiac
output, pulse pressure, and mean
pressure. You may bring a calculator if
Questions for Exam 3:
Omit the red
questions for examination purposes
1. Know the equations for respiration and the
carbonic anhydrase shift. Know
"CO2/O2 shuttle system" that defines how CO2 is transported from
the lungs and how O2 is transported from the lungs to working
2. What are the chemical properties of oxygen
and carbon dioxide that require these
gases to be
transported? What is the structure of
the key vertebrate respiratory
where do the gases attach to the molecule, and how does the molecule
configuration when it is saturated? Know
the difference between oxyhemo-
carbaminohemoglobin, and carboxyhemoglobin.
In what form are O2 and CO2
determines whether Hb will bind or dissociate with a gas molecule and
how does it
determine which gas? For this answer
think about the Haldene Effect,
pressure, and the sigmoid kinetics of oxygen-hemoglobin affinity.
4. How would one calculate the PP for a given
gas, given the total atmospheric
pressure? What is the average PP for oxygen in the
pulmonary capillaries? In the
systemic capillaries? At half saturation? How is PP related to Hb-oxygen saturation
properties of the sigmoid curve)?
5. What is the Bohr Effect? How does the kinetics/affinity of Hb for
there are changes in PP CO2? pH? temperature?
2,3-DPG? CO poisoning?
in breathing/ventilation? Make sure that
you can identify which
conditions would force oxygen to dissociate sooner than normal and which
oxygen to be retained longer than normal.
Does this assist gas exchange?
Why or why
6. What are the anatomical components and
functions of the conducting zone
respiratory zone of the lungs? Where is
the only true location
exchange in the lungs?
7. How does Boyle's Law and the movement of the
diaphragm and related muscles
the pleural cavity explain the act of breathing in terms of
gradients? Know which muscles and nerves
are operational during the
and expiration. Know which processes
require an input of ATP.
8. What is the physiological basis for asthma,
bronchitis, emphysema, lack
compliance, and SIDS? What is the
difference between an obstructive versus
restrictive lung disease? If provided a
set of "normal" spirometry values
and given a set
of values from a patient, be able to diagnose the likely
state based on the provided lung capacity values.
9. Be very familiar and expect calculations for
spirometry!! They will be very
similar to what
you have already done for your homework questions.
1. If your
patient's TLC was 7.0L and VC was 5.5L, calculate
volume of air still in the lung?
2. If this same patient weighed 54 kg and had an
ERV of 2.5L and
an IRV of
2.5L, what would be the amount of fresh air brought
lung with each inspiration?
ANSWER: 392 ml
3. If a patient has an IC of 3.5L and an IRV of
3.2L, weighs 60 kg
and an VA of
400 ml, how fast is this person breathing?
4. What is the VC of an individual wih an IRV of 2.5L, an IC of 3L,
a FRC of
4L? Assume that the RV of this
individual is 2.5L (quite large).
ANSWER: 4.5L (there are several routes to this answer)
5. If you had a VC of 6L, a TV of 600 ml, a ERV
of 2L, what would your
10. What are some basic renal processes and why
is the kidney so critical
to the operation
of so many organ systems?
11. What is the smallest functional unit of the
kidney? What are the
two types or
classes of these functional units and how do they differ
12. What are the 5 major regions of the nephron? What is filtered in
region? What is the primary function
that is linked to each region?
clinically disturb the function or filtration in a particular
region? What are the regulatory processes that occur
in each region
(hormonal? active transport? simple diffusion?)?
13. Compare the three major functions of the
kidney (GF, TR, and TS).
14. How is clearance of substances through the
structurally regulated by size and charge of the molecule?
15. Define GFR in terms of an equation and
functionally. How would the
perturb GFR?.....exercise, hemorrhage, excess fluids,
burns, trama, kidney stones.
What is autoregulation and how does it
keep GFR in
16. How is glucose reabsorption defined by a
process? How much is the renal threshold for
glucose? What is glucosuria?
Diabetes mellitus be clinically determined?
17. Describe the physiological steps for
transepithelial transport for Na
pct. How is transport of water
facilitated by this process?
18. Describe fully the process of countercurrent
multiplication in the
19. Compare and contrast the function of
vasopressin and aldosterone in the
dct. How do protein
hormones operate differently than steroid hormones?
20. How is Na reabsorption functionally linked to
K secretion? Are they
coupled? Why is it so essential to
maintain regularity in the
potassium in the plasma?
21. Understand the anatomy and function of
specialized regions within the JGA.
intricately the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system and how this system
22. Be familiar with the following complications
as they pertain to renal
as albuminuria, proteinuria, hypertension, and congestive heart
failure. What is athletic pseudonephritis? glomerulonephritis? Why is
of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone an "inappropriate trigger"
during a cardiac
23. What is the principle mechanism underlying
the artificial kidney?
between acute, chronic, and end-stage renal failure. What are
advantages and disadvantages for kidney dialysis?
Questions for Final Exam (Digestive Physiology:
Omit the red
questions for examination purposes
1. What are the four primary processes of
2. In each category of foodstuffs, what are the
intermediate breakdown products? How is
3. Know the general anatomy of the GI
tract....which contains the
glands? what comprises the muscularis
and how does it contribute to motility along the GI
4. What are some secondary roles of mastication? Of taste
5. What are the 2 phases of deglutition? The steps of the first phase?
The steps of
the second phase?
Know the chemistry behind acetylsalicyclic
absorption in the stomach.
7. What are the four "stops" of
gastric emptying? Describe
involvement and physiological mode of action
in each of
these. What are some additional factors
Be familiar with the physiology of vomiting and its causes.
9. Compare peristalsis, haustrations, and
segmentation in terms
electrophysiology, location, and function.
10. Know major stimulators and inhibitors of
gastrin/gastric acid secretion.
Discuss the physiology, prevention, and treatment of peptic ulcers.
What are the most common causes of
12. What is the composition of bile? How does it relate to serum cholesterol
levels? How does digestion of fat relate to the
emulsification of fats?
micellar formation and how does it aid either digestion or
13. Describe fully 2 medical complications
related to high bile
are the causes? what are the
how can these complications be
14. Describe the structure of the brush border
and the differential
of fats vs. proteins/carbohydrates?
15. Know fully the enzymology, E requirements, and transport
incorporation of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats from the lumen
of the small
intestine into the human body. Be able
to master these to
the point of
manipulation and comparisons across the three.
16. What is digested in each region of the GI
tract? What is absorbed
region of the GI tract?
17. Compare the functions of the cells of the
oxyntic mucosa of the
(surface epithelial, mucous neck cells, parietal cells,
with that of the cells comprising the brush border
of the small
intestine (brush border, Crypts of Lieberkuhn).
18. What role does the pancreas play in
acinar cells, the duct cells, and the Islets of Langerhans.
19. What is a mass movement? Describe the defecation reflex; how
relate to constipation or to appendicitis? What are some
physiological causes for
diarrhea? What is Oral Rehydration
Questions for the Final Exam (Endocrinology and Reproductive Physiology):
1. Know the anatomy of the hypothalamus and
pituitary that comprise
hypothalamic endocrine axis. Know all
the hormones that are synthesized
from this combined structure, their targets, and their points
or positive regulatory feedback.
2. Discuss the distinction between homeostasis
for the individual versus
species in terms of genetic recombination via reproduction.
3. Know the physiological functions of all the
What are specific determining factors of sex determination
located on the Y chromosome? Are both X chromosomes used for ovary genesis
and later for oogenesis? What gene on the X chromosome is essential
for male secondary sexual
characteristics and external genitalia?
5. Review the steps of gametogenesis for
spermatogenesis and oogenesis.
Know all the
hormonal controls governing these processes.
6. Know the molecular targets of LH, FSH,
7. Discuss the pulsatile and periodic changes in
LH-FSH secretion and
how this is
best utilized for function across the genders?
What have been some discovers made
while trying to treat
infertility due to hyposecretion or
irregular control of the hypothalamic generator?
8. Be intricately familiar with the hormonal
regulation of the ovarian
cycle. Comprehend the physiology of oral contraception. What are some benefits
associated risks with their use?
What is the physiological role for ABP in spermatogenesis?
What is spermiation? How
long does it take to complete? How long
can sperm be
stored in the human body?
Know the structure/function relationships of the human spermatozoan.
11. Discuss the ramifications of limited gamete
production and unequal
division during oogenesis? How will this
12. Describe the process of luteinization
and luteolysis of the
Be able to define complications of menstruation such as
amenorrhea, anovulatory cycles,
polycystic ovary syndrome and the
types of drugs we have developed as
our knowledge of menses
14. Describe how the uterine endometrium is
prepared for implantation?
15. Compare the male sex act with the female sex
16. Know the plasma hormonal changes that occur
course of gestation and menstration. Know what
physiological targets and biological effects of these hormones?
secreted maternally? Which placentally?
17. What is the female's body response to
18. What are some guidelines for exercise during
19. What is the suckling reflex of lactation?
20. What is the composition of human milk? What is colostrum?
milk is produced?
21. What are some of the benefits of breast
there be better patient education in this
State some common causes of male and female infertility?
What are the most frequent problems
and how are they