Central Nervous System

I. Clinically Important Regions of the Central Nervous System A. Why Neuronal Circuitry is a Challenge B. Decade of the Brain 1990-2000 II. Protection and Nourishment of the Brain A. 10% Neuronal and 90% Neuroglia! B. Neuroglia 1. General Properties 2. Four Specific Classes a. Astrocytes 1. Neuronal Guidance 2. Blood-brain Barrier a. Tight Junctions b. Facilitated Transport 3. Uptake of NT and K ions b. Oligodendrocytes 1. Myelin Sheath Cells c. Ependymal Cells 1. Forms CSF d. Microglia 1. Phagocytic III. Overview of Structure Function A. Cerebral Cortex 1. Brain Damage a. Shaken b. O2 Deprivation c. Cerebrovascular Accidents 1. Excitotoxicity d. Headaches e. Tumors 1. Use of Scans to Guide Surgeons a. CAT scans b. MRI scans c. PET scans 2. Use-dependent Competition & Plasticity 2. Language Centers a. Wernicke's Area b. Broca's Area c. Selective Language Disturbances 1. Stroke 2. Speech Impediments 3. Dyslexia 3. Somatosensory and Primary Motor Cortex a. The Homunculus B. Basal Nuclei 1. Parkinson's Disease a. General Pathology b. Cause for Loss of Dopamine? 1. Pesticides and Pollution c. Treatments C. Thalamus 1. Relay Station D. Hypothalamus 1. Thermostat 2. Endocrine Center E. Cerebellum and Hippocampus 1. Alzheimer's Disease a. General Pathology b. Cause of Plagues and Neurofibrillary Tangles? 1. An Accelerated Process of Aging 2. Genetic Defect in Genes for Beta Amyloid Precursor 3. Environmentally induced (Aluminum) 2. Learning and Memory F. Brain Stem 1. Coma, the EEG, and Consciousness a. Electrocerbral Silence 2. Reception and Integration of Spinal Cord a. 12 Cranial Nerves Arise b. Reticular Formation 3. Sleep Centers a. Sleep as an ACTIVE Process b. Two Classes of Sleep Cycles 1. Slow Wave 2. Paradoxical