Cellular Respiration

I. EXPECTATIONS: A. DO NOT memorize structures, enzymes, and pathways except for notable regulation sites B. DO understand key principles governing pathways C. DO understand events in each of three main processes 1. Glycolysis then Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA 2. Krebs Cycle 3. Electron Transport D. DO know how much ATP is generated in each step, location within the cell, and under oxygenated/deoxygenated environment 1. Fermentation = w/o Oxygen 2. Cellular Respiration = w/ Oxygen E. Do know balanced equations for respiration and photosynthesis II. Overview of Respiration A. Three types of work ATP is needed 1. transport work 2. mechanical work 3. chemical work B. Oxidation-reduction Reactions 1. electron donor/reducing agent 2. electron acceptor/oxidizing agent C. Simple Steps 1. H is Stripped from glucose 2. H combines with O2 to create controled release of E that produces ATP 3. Intermediate H acceptors a. NAD+ = nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide b. FAD+ = flavin adenine dinucleotide D. Two means to Synthesize ATP 1. oxidative Phosphorylation (90%) 2. substrate-level Phosphorylation (10%) III. Glycolysis A. Glucose to Pyruvate B. Requires 2ATP to initiate C. Produces a. 2 NADH (6ATP) b. 4 substrate dependent ATP c. Net 8 ATP w/ Oxygen d. Net 2 ATP w/o Oxygen D. Pyruvate Transporter a. 2 NADH (6 ATP) IV. Krebs Cycle A. 24 ATP B. 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, and 2 ATP substrate dependent V. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) A. Electron Acceptors 1. FP 2. Q 3. cytochromes B. Total delta G yield C. The Chemiosmotic Hypothesis; Peter Michell 1. Proton Gradient 2. ATP Synthase D. Evolutionary Significance of Glycolysis versus ETC VI. Metabolic Pathways Connecting to III. through IV. (proteins and fats) V. Negative Feedback Control A. phosphofructokinase