Cell Structure and Function

I. Introductory A. Physiology = The study of biological function.... how the organism as a whole accomplishes particular tasks essential for life B. Organization of the Body 1. Cells, Tissues, Organs, Systems 2. 4 Primary Tissues a. Muscle Tissue 1. skeletal 2. cardiac 3. smooth b. Nervous Tissue 1. muscle contraction 2. gland secretion c. Epithelial Tissue 1. cuboidal, columnar, and ciliated columnar 2. 2 major functions a. membranes b. glands - 2 types 1. exocrine 2. endocrine d. Connective Tissue - 4 types 1. connective tissue proper a. loose b. dense 2. cartilage 3. bone - Haversian System 4. Blood a. plasma b. interstitial fluid c. ECF d. ICF II. Typical Organization of the Cell A. Structure and Function of the Primary Organelles 1. membrane 2. cytoplasm 3. er 4. ribosomes 5. ga 6. mitochondria 7. lysosomes 8. nucleolus 9. vesicles 10. vaults 11. peroxisomes B. Important Cell Components for the Physiologist 1. The Cell Membrane (Next Unit!) 2. Cytosol and Cytoskeleton a. 3 Major Cytosolic Activities b. Cytoskeletal Latticework Using 1. microtubules 2. microfilaments 3. intermediate filaments 4. microtrabecular lattice 3. Mitochondria a. Cellular Activities That Require ATP 1. Synthesis 2. Membrane Transport 3. Mechanical Work b. Electron Transport Chain c. Chemiosmotic Hypothesis III. Essential Organic Molecules A. Carbohydrates 1. monosachharides 2. disaccharides 3. polysaccharides B. Lipids 1. triglycerides 2. ketone bodies 3. phospholipids 4. steroids 5. prostaglandins C. Proteins 1. Amino Acids Linked By a Peptide Bond 2. Types of Proteins and Functions a. transport and selectivity across membranes b. support and structure c. enzymes d. receptors e. carriers f. ion channels 3. Four Protein Structures a. primary b. secondary c. tertiary d. quaternary D. Nucleic Acids 1. 2 Essential Functions of DNA a. perpetuation of the human genome b. synthesis of proteins 2. Characteristics of DNA 3. The Genetic Code a. Phosphate-sugar backbone and nucleotide ladder b. 4 nucleotide bases 1. adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine 2. complementary base pairing A=T C=G c. Steps of DNA Replication and Protein Synthesis 1. Semi-conservative Replication 2. Transcription of DNA into mRNA 3. Ribosome Complex Role in Protein Synthesis 4. Translation of RNA into proteins 5. Role of tRNA d. Mutations 1. Chemical Mutagens 2. UV light 3. X-rays 4. oncology