Circulatory System, Heart, and Blood

I. Principles of Simple Diffusion A. Blood B. Vessels C. Tissues D. Interstitial Fluid II. Internal Transport Accomplished by: A. Gastrovascular Cavity 1. Which Animals? a. cnidarians b. planarians c. echinoderms 2. One way water flow 3. Exchange through 1-2 cell thickness B. Circulatory System 1. Characteristics of Open AND Closed a. circulatory fluid b. uses vessels c. muscular pump d. hydrostatic psi creates blood psi within the confines of a tube 2. The Open Circulatory System a. Which animals? 1. insects 2. arthropods b. Characteristics 1. no true ISF 2. hemolymph 3. sinuses 4. not a true forced beat 3. The Closed Circulatory Sytem a. Which animals? 1. anelids 2. advanced molluscs 3. all vertebrates KNOW BLOOD FLOW PATTERNS FOR i. mammals ii. humans iii. frog iv. turtle v. alligator/crocodile vi. bird b. Characteristics 1. true ISF and blood 2. true heart; myogenic 3. diverse anatomy i. chambered heart ii. double circulation iii.supplementary gas exchange III. The Human Heart A. Blood Flow Patterns 1. SVC, IVC, AO, RA, RV, PA, PV, LA, LV B. Heart Valves 1. Chordae Tendinae 2. Papillary Muscles 3. Types: KNOW LOCATION AND ACTIVITY a. tricuspid b. pulmonary semilunar c. mitral (bicuspid) d. aortic semilunar vavle 4. Function C. The Cardiac Trace 1. Pressure changes over the cycle a. systole b. diastole c. How to measure your blood pressure using laws of laminar blood flow 2. Phonocardiogram a. S1, S2, S3, S4 3. Electrocardiogram (EKG) a. P wave, QRS Spectrum, T wave 4. Pathway of electrical conductivity a. SA and AV nodes b. bundle of His c. Purkinje fibers IV. Structure and Features of Vessels A. Law of Continuity 1. Physics of blood flow in a tube 2. Properties important for Gas Exchange a. total cross-sectional area b. blood flow velocity c. blood psi B. Characteristics of the Vessels 1. Arteries 2. Capillaries 3. Lymphatic System 4. Metarterioles 5. Veins V. Blood as a Connective Tissue A. Composition of Plasma B. Composition of Cellular Elements C. Observation of a Blood Smear D. Major Cell Types and Functions 1. Erythrocytes (RBC) - transport O2 and CO2 2. Leukocytes (WBC) - Defense a. monocytes/neutrophils - phagocytosis b. lymphocytes - Immunity c. basophils/eosinophils - parasites, infection, inflamation 3. Platelets a. Diapedesis b. Natural Clotting in response to injury c. Clotting in response to cardiovascular disease 1. arteriosclerosis/atherosclerosis 2. thrombus/embolis 3. cva/heart attack/stroke 4. complicating risk factors