Atomic Structure

I. Matter and Elements A. Mass versus Weight B. Greek Philosophers definition of elements C. Facts about elements i. 25 of 92 are life essential ii. C, O, H, N = 96% iii. P, S, Ca, K, Mg, Cl, Na = 4% iv. Zn, Fe, Co, Fl, I, Cu, Mn = 0.01% v. Compounds versus molecules vi. KNOW SYMBOLS, ATOMIC # AND MASS, VALENCE OR BINDING CAPACITY OF ALL LIFE ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS II. Atomic Structure A. Subatomic particles i. protons, neutrons, electrons ii. atomic mass unit (amu) = dalton iii. mass number, atomic number, versus atomic weight iv. nominclature B. Isotopes C. Usefulness of radioactive isotopes i. Pet scans ii. MRI scans iii. C dating iv. Scintillation v. Autoradiography III. Energy of Electrons and Electron Orbitals A. Only electrons involved in chemical reactions B. Energy and potential energy i. Same principle as a. osmosis b. enzymatic rxns c. electrical gradients d. protein folding C. Electron shells i. electrons enter to lowest potential energy ii. electrons enter no more than 2 per orbital (paired) iii. unpaired electrons participate in reactions D. The Periodic Table i. Periods or rows of potential energy ii. 2,8,8,8 iii. valence electrons and the valence shell iv. inert chemicals E. Electron Orbitals replace concentric circle diagrams First Shell = 1S orbital Second Shell = 2S orbital (1 of these), 2P orbitals (3 of these) Third Shell and beyond = holds additional orbitals of more complex shapes