The following informal questions will guide
efforts towards the key conceptional
ideas we have covered and
will strenghen your
knowledge for the upcoming exam.
For all exams:
You should know specific vocabulary words and conventions we
have defined and not be afraid to use them!
YOU WILL BE REQUIRED TO PROVIDE DETAILED
AS WELL AS TO APPLY PRACTICAL LOGIC FROM
MAKE SURE YOU PREPARE YOURSELF FOR MULTIPLE
FORMATS AND STUDY YOUR MATERIAL KNOWING THAT
BE t/f, FILL IN THE BLANKS, SHORT ANSWER, AS
MULTIPLE CHOICE. I WANT TO TEST YOU FOR YOUR KNOWLEDGE,
NOT YOUR ABILITY TO EXAMINE, THEREFORE THE
DIVERSE AND UNBIASED.
First Exam Study Questions:
Omit the red questions for
What is the major organizational plan of the body? And what
are the four primary tissues?
between the 3 types of muscle (skeletal, cardiac, and smooth)?
What is the substructure of the neuron (functional unit of the nervous
Anatomical classifications of epithelial tissue and 2 primary functions?
Four types of connective tissue?
Distinguish between ICF, ECF, plasma, and interstitial fluid?
Organelle structure and function?
is the structure of the phospholipid bilayer important to physiological
Identity and functions of specialized proteins in the latticework?
Review of GENERAL principles of glycolysis, TCA, electron transport
Cellular activities that require energy expenditure?
How does the Chemiosmotic Hypothesis
demonstrate several classic
How are organic molecules classified?
What is the structure of proteins?
What is the major function of nucleic acids?
Review the genetic code, transcription, and translation?
Sources of hazardous mutagens?
How are molecules transported across and through the membrane?
Which types of membrane transport requires energy? requires
requires a gradient?
Name physiological mechanisms where transport is operational?
How does Einstein's Random Walk Theory relate to synaptic transmission?
How do concentration gradients, size of NT, charge, and temperature
affect the rate of electronic signaling?
Why are rbcs natural osmometers?
What are distinct characteristics of only protein-mediated transport?
What does primary active transport have to do with phosphorylation?
What are the generic regions of specialization for a "typical"
and where are the anatomically distinct neuron
types located in the body?
What physiological processes are in common for all neuron types?
all cells that have a negative resting potential have the
capacity to fire an action potential? Why or why not?
what form is information encoded in the nervous system? How does
changing the action potential shape change the
information? If you were to block
certain ionic conductances
underlying the action potential with drugs, how
would various scenarios alter the encoded information?
What is absolute and relative refraction; what type of ion channel
(drug targets) would
affect rates of action potential firing?
Why do we clinically want to measure ion channel physiology?
What are some common antidepressant drugs, diet pills, and medicines for
reducing schizophrenic hallucinations? Where do these medicines target synaptic
Which drug is presently being recalled due to its side effects
on heart valve damage?
What are the classic principles of the action potential?
How are local currents distinct from action potentials? If the former are
decrementing, what is their physiological function?
Does the ALL-or-NONE principle contradict the theory of
all nerve cells have the same threshold and space constant? Why or why not?
What is a myelinated axon? How
does saltatory conduction velocity assist the
nervous system in terms of energy, space, and speed?
What is the physiological basis for Multiple Sclerosis? What other environmental
factors could induce similar patient symptoms?
Schwann cells or Oligodendrocytes assist in regeneration? Discuss?
Compare and contrast electrical synapses with the traditional chemical
Why do scientists know so much about the NMJ and the ACh-R
over that of all other
How do microtubules assist in synaptic transmission?
you had a drug that blocked
How would taking this
"prescription" affect the excitability of your muscle?
What are the properties of neuroglia?
What are the four classes of neuroglia?
Which class is important during a stroke (and
Which class is protective again brain
Which assists to increase the conduction
velocity of nerve impulses?
Which assists in immune responses?
Know the structure/functions of the major brain regions
and which common diseases are associated with
which brain regions.
What are some common clinical causes of brain damage?
What are the physiological mechanisms underlying a
cerebrovascular accident and what are some new
treatments to prevent further neuronal cell death?
What are some modern technical devices used
to detect brain tumors and what are
their principles of operation?
What is plasticity and how is it related to
use-dependent competition for cortical space?
What are some selective language disturbances
that occur due to stroke or genetic defects?
How does the homunculus cartoon graphically
represent our perceived input and responsive motor
How does it demonstrate the somatotopic map?
What cell type does Parkinson's disease target?
Be familiar with clinical symptoms, cellular
mechanisms, putative causes of this disease, and
present as well as controversial treatments of the
How is this disease related to Schizophrenia?
What cell type does Alzheimer's disease target?
Be familiar with clinical symptoms, cellular
is this disease associated with a metal?
More Computational Practice Problems –
Given the following information, [Nao] = 300 mM, [Nai] = 35 mM,
= 47 mM, [Ki] = 410 mM, [Clo] = 60 mM, [Cli] = 150 mM, PNa (active) = 10,000,
pNa (rest) = 0.5, pK = 10, pCl = 8.
What is the equilibrium potential for chloride?
What is the height of the action potential?
What is the resting potential of the nerve if it is an octopus?
Knowing B and C, will the nerve fire is there is a disturbance the moves
the potential to -30 mV?
the nerve felt an electrical disturbance of 300 pA at
point 0, how much
current would be remaining 100 um away if the length
constant was 50 um?
A = +24 mV, B = 56 mV, C = -23 mV, D = yes
b/c the threshold is -11 mV, E = 41 pA
is the reticular formation? How does it
to your alertness? How can we measure alertness and what
IS this electrical signal? What are the levels of consciousness?
What is an electrocerebral
Describe why sleep is an active process.
between slow-wave and paradoxical sleep (delta and
Know the composition of the PNS and the 12 cranial nerves that originate
from the brain stem.
What is the map of associated functions with the white
matter vs. the grey matter of the spinal cord? What are the components
of the reflex arc?
Second Exam Study Questions:
are muscles the contractile specialists of the body?
are muscles categorized structurally and
physiologically in terms of function?
the anatomy of skeletal muscle from
the organ down to the protein.
Know the substructure of the sarcomere basic contractile
unit and what changes occur during skeletal
Describe fully and distinguish between the Sliding
Filament Theory and
is the structure of the "contractile" proteins
critical to their physiological function?
Compare the structure/function across actin
is the role of Ca2+ different in skeletal, cardiac,
and smooth muscle?
Describe the steps of the cross-bridge cycle for skeletal muscle?
How is it critically different in smooth
How is excitation-contraction coupling
in skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle?
Study fully the physiology of smooth muscle relating
its structure and function to that of cardiac
and skeletal muscle.
Describe the components of whole muscle contraction
contraction, relaxation) and the cellular events
underlying theses mechanics. What is a twitch, summation,
tetany, or fatigue?
Describe the motor unit, what is motor unit recruitment?
How does the motor
unit and its recruitment change as we age?
What are three cellular sources of fatigue?
recovery in physiological terms?
muscle atrophy? What are some common
and how can we minimize atrophy?
Describe the clinical pathology of Muscular Dystrophy,
the cellular and genetic basis for the
disease, and two newly
researched types of therapy for treatment of
the muscle atrophy.
What are intermediate filaments?
How do they relate to
How does smooth muscle contract in the
absence of sarcomere units and troponin?
can certain drugs and hormones modulate the
activity of smooth and cardiac muscles but are left
in modulation of skeletal muscle contraction?
How can smooth muscle utilize more ATP per
cross-bridge cycle than that of skeletal, and still be
deemed economical in terms of energy
What is the latch phenomena (see text for
detail of this term)?
Describe and contrast the two types of smooth muscle
and the parts of the body in which we would find
Which utilizes a functional syncytium in
connection with gap junction proteins?
For myogenic single unit smooth muscle, what are the two
types of spontaneous depolarizations found in
these two self-excitable
kind of electrical activity would you expect to find
in your duodenum? your gall
Know the blood flow patterns of the heart and the major
chambers and vessels leading into and out of the
the 4 valves of the heart and which are open
relaxation and which are open during ventricular
What is the purpose of the valves and what is
underlying its function?
How is the heart 2 pumps in series divided by a septum?
What two major circulatory systems are
Septal defects can cause abnormal blood
where is blood normally shunted to relieve
And what clinical situation can develop
if normal physiological events do not occur
properly at and
shortly after birth?
What two major nerves alter the myogenicity of
How? Know the electrical
pathway in the heart from origination of these two
down through the Pûrkinje
Distinguish between the action potentials in a general
nerve and those found in the myocardia. Why is the duration
different and to what advantage is this? How do APs compare
in different regions within the heart? What electrical
advantage does this supply?
23. Be able to go back and forth between the pressure changes
in the heart, the four heart sounds, the EKG,
and the blood
volume of the heart to compare the time synchrony
diverse and interrelated events.
Know which heart sounds correspond to the opening or closing
of which heart valves. Where is the best resolution of the sound
on the human body for each valve? What is a heart murmur and what
are three classic causes of a heart murmur?
Know what the electrical basis is for the EKG and all the underlying
electrical components are for each wave or
spectrum. How is the shape,
waveform, and timing of the EKG used to diagnose
heart disease states?
Be able to distinguish the following
arrhythmias: bradycardia, tachycardia,
ectopic pacemaker, ventricular tachycardia, flutter,
and ventricular fibrillation.
Define A-V heart block in terms of the EKG P-R interval? What are the
physiological changes that occur as the patient moves from
1st to 3rd degree
A-V block? What
does the EKG look like during a MI (Myocardial Infarction)?
27. Be able to distinguish between the structural and hence
differences between the 3 major blood vessels in the
body. How does the
heart coordinate with these vessels?
Understand the terminology used in heart disease: atherosclerosis,
artheriosclerosis, ischemia, thrombosis, plaque, and embolism.
What is the cellular mechanism for the development of plaque that
at the age of 16-18 years of age? How are low-density and high density lipo-
How is the incidence of CHD related to your levels
How are exercise, menopause, pregnancy, lactation, smoking, genetic
and diet related to your levels of LDL and/or
occlusion of your coronary vessel is known as what? Where is the most
damaging location for an occlusion in your
heart? Why? An occlusion in any
vessel of your brain is known as what? What are 5 common treatments we discussed
in lecture to eleviate
the oxygen deprivation caused by the occlusion?
Distinguish between a myocardial infarction and myocardial
are some differences and similarities in their
clinical symptoms? What is
the physiological target of nitroglycerine and
by what type of molecule?
What is the definition of cardiac output? How does it relate to the rate
of parasympathetic and sympathetic
stroke volume? to
There are many mechanisms to regulate blood volume and blood
discussed only the classic stretch receptors located
in the "resistance vessels".
Be familiar with this reflex pathway and how
it can bring both high and
low blood pressure back to homeostatic
Describe some physical laws governing blood flow. Specifically what roles
do the length of the vessel, the viscosity of
the blood, the radius of the vessel,
and the total cross sectional area of a class of
vessels play in affecting
resistance to blood flow? How would these then affect cardiac
36. Be familiar with clinical implications for non-laminar blood
flow such as
functional cardiac murmurs, anemic conditions, and
the physiological basis for the ausculatory method you use during routine blood
37. Be able to calculate and recognize the clinical implications
resistance, cardiac output, pulse pressure, and mean
You may bring a calculator if you like.
Study Questions for Exam 3:
Omit the red questions for
the equations for respiration and the carbonic anhydrase shift. Know
the "CO2/O2 shuttle system" that
defines how CO2 is transported from working
tissues to the lungs and how O2 is transported from
the lungs to working
What are the chemical properties of oxygen and carbon dioxide that
gases to be transported? What is the structure of the key vertebrate
pigment, where do the gases attach to the molecule,
and how does the molecule
change configuration when it is saturated? Know the difference between oxyhemo-
and carboxyhemoglobin. In what form are
O2 and CO2
3. What determines whether Hb will bind or dissociate with a gas molecule and
how does it determine which gas? For this answer think about the Haldene Effect,
partial pressure, and the sigmoid kinetics of
would one calculate the PP for a given gas, given the total atmospheric
is the average PP for oxygen in the pulmonary capillaries? In the
At half saturation? How is PP related to Hb-oxygen
of the sigmoid curve)?
What is the Bohr Effect? How does
the kinetics/affinity of Hb for oxygen
change if there are changes in PP CO2? pH? temperature? 2,3-DPG? CO poisoning?
or changes in breathing/ventilation? Make sure that you can identify which
of these conditions would force oxygen to
dissociate sooner than normal and which
would force oxygen to be retained longer than
normal. Does this assist gas exchange?
Why or why not?
What are the anatomical components and functions of the conducting zone
versus the respiratory zone of the lungs? Where is the only true location
for gas exchange in the lungs?
does Boyle's Law and the movement of the diaphragm and related muscles
surrounding the pleural cavity explain the act of
breathing in terms of
Know which muscles and nerves are operational during the
inspiration and expiration. Know which processes require an input of ATP.
What is the physiological basis for asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, lack
of compliance, and SIDS? What is the difference between an obstructive
a restrictive lung disease? If provided a set of "normal"
and given a set of values from a patient, be
able to diagnose the likely
disease state based on the provided lung capacity
9. Be very familiar and expect calculations for
spirometry!! They will be very
similar to what you have already done for your
Spirometry Homework Problems:
1. If your patient's TLC was 7.0L and VC was
the residual volume of air still in the lung?
this same patient weighed 54 kg and had an ERV of 2.5L and
an IRV of 2.5L, what would be the amount of
fresh air brought
into the lung with each inspiration?
a patient has an IC of 3.5L and an IRV of 3.2L, weighs 60 kg
and an VA of 400 ml, how fast is this person
What is the VC of an individual wih an IRV of
2.5L, an IC of 3L,
a FRC of 4L?
Assume that the RV of this individual is 2.5L (quite large).
4.5L (there are several routes to this answer)
you had a VC of 6L, a TV of 600 ml, a ERV of 2L, what would your
Inspiratory capacity be?
What are some basic renal processes and why is the kidney so critical
to the operation of so many organ systems?
What is the smallest functional unit of the kidney? What are the
two types or classes of these functional units
and how do they differ
functionally and anataomically?
What are the 5 major regions of the nephron? What is filtered in
What is the primary function that is linked to each region?
What can clinically disturb the function or
filtration in a particular
are the regulatory processes that occur in each region
Compare the three major functions of the kidney (GF, TR, and TS).
How is clearance of substances through the glomerulus physically
and structurally regulated by size and charge of
GFR in terms of an equation and functionally.
How would the
follow perturb GFR?.....exercise, hemorrhage,
excess fluids, diarrhea,
burns, trama, kidney
stones. What is autoregulation and how
keep GFR in register?
How is glucose reabsorption defined by a carrier-limited reabsorption
much is the renal threshold for glucose?
What is glucosuria?
How can Diabetes mellitus be clinically
Describe the physiological steps for transepithelial
transport for Na
across the pct.
How is transport of water facilitated by this process?
Describe fully the process of countercurrent multiplication in the
loop of Henle.
Compare and contrast the function of vasopressin and aldosterone in the
do protein hormones operate differently than steroid hormones?
20. How is Na reabsorption functionally linked to K secretion? Are they
Why is it so essential to maintain regularity in the
level of potassium in the plasma?
Understand the anatomy and function of specialized regions within the
Know intricately the
renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system and how this system regulates
salt and water balance.
22. Be familiar with the following complications as they pertain
failure such as albuminuria, proteinuria,
hypertension, and congestive heart
is athletic pseudonephritis? glomerulonephritis?
activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone an
during a cardiac arrest?
is the principle mechanism underlying the artificial kidney?
between acute, chronic, and end-stage renal failure. What are
some advantages and disadvantages for kidney dialysis?
Study Questions for Final Exam (Digestive
Omit the red questions for
What are the four primary processes of digestion?
each category of foodstuffs, what are the absorbable
units and intermediate breakdown products? How is hydrolysis
involved in this process?
the general anatomy of the GI tract....which contains the
what comprises the muscularis
is B.E.R. and how does it contribute to
motility along the GI
What are some secondary roles of mastication? Of taste
What are the 2 phases of deglutition?
The steps of the first phase?
The steps of the second
6. Know the chemistry behind acetylsalicyclic
absorption in the stomach.
7. What are the four "stops" of gastric emptying? Describe
the hormonal involvement and physiological mode
in each of these. What are some additional factors that
may alter gastric motility?
Be familiar with the physiology of vomiting and its
Compare peristalsis, haustrations, and segmentation in terms
of electrophysiology, location, and function.
Know major stimulators and inhibitors of gastrin/gastric acid secretion.
11. Discuss the physiology, prevention, and
treatment of peptic ulcers.
What are the most common causes of
What is the composition of bile?
How does it relate to serum cholesterol
does digestion of fat relate to the emulsification of fats?
What is micellar formation and how does it
aid either digestion or
Describe fully 2 medical complications related to high bile
production...what are the causes? what are the
how can these complications be diagnosed?
the structure of the brush border and the differential
absorption of fats vs. proteins/carbohydrates?
Know fully the enzymology, E requirements, and transport mechanisms
for the incorporation of proteins,
carbohydrates, and fats from the lumen
of the small intestine into the human
body. Be able to master these to
the point of manipulation and comparisons across
What is digested in each region of the GI tract? What is absorbed
in each region of the GI tract?
Compare the functions of the cells of the oxyntic mucosa of the
stomach (surface epithelial, mucous neck cells,
chief cells) with that of the cells comprising the
of the small intestine (brush border, Crypts of
role does the pancreas play in digestion?
between the acinar cells, the duct cells, and the
Islets of Langerhans.
What is a mass movement? Describe
the defecation reflex; how
does this relate to constipation or to
appendicitis? What are some
physiological causes for diarrhea? What is Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT)?
Questions for the Final Exam (Endocrinology and Reproductive Physiology):
Know the anatomy of the hypothalamus and pituitary that comprise
the hypothalamic endocrine axis. Know all the hormones that are synthesized
and released from this combined structure, their
targets, and their points
of negative or positive regulatory feedback.
2. Discuss the distinction between homeostasis
for the individual versus
for the species in terms of genetic recombination via
Know the physiological functions of all the primary reproductive
organs for each gender.
What are specific determining factors of sex determination
located on the Y chromosome? Are both X chromosomes used for ovary genesis
and later for oogenesis? What gene on the X chromosome is essential
for male secondary sexual
characteristics and external genitalia?
Review the steps of gametogenesis for spermatogenesis and oogenesis.
Know all the hormonal controls governing
Know the molecular targets of LH, FSH, inhibin,
activin, follistatin, GnRH, FSH, hCG.
Discuss the pulsatile and periodic changes in LH-FSH secretion and
how this is best utilized for function across
What have been some discovers made while
trying to treat
infertility due to hyposecretion
or irregular control of the hypothalamic generator?
8. Be intricately familiar with the hormonal regulation of the
Comprehend the physiology of oral contraception. What
are some benefits
and associated risks with their use?
What is the physiological role for ABP in spermatogenesis?
What is spermiation? How long does it take to complete? How long
can sperm be stored in the human body?
Know the structure/function relationships of the human spermatozoan.
Discuss the ramifications of limited gamete production and unequal
cytoplasmic division during oogenesis? How will this affect family
Describe the process of luteinization and luteolysis of the
Be able to define complications of menstruation
cycles, polycystic ovary syndrome and the
types of drugs we have developed as our
knowledge of menses
Describe how the uterine endometrium is prepared for implantation?
Compare the male sex act with the female sex act?
Know the plasma hormonal changes that occur
over the course of gestation and menstration. Know
the physiological targets and biological effects
of these hormones?
secreted maternally? Which placentally?
What is the female's body response to pregnancy?
What are some guidelines for exercise during pregnancy?
What is the suckling reflex of lactation?
What is the composition of human milk?
What is colostrum?
How much milk is produced?
What are some of the benefits of breast feeding and
why should there be better patient
education in this
22. State some common causes of male and female
What are the
most frequent problems and how are they